The above infographic lays out the more common positions of the philosophical compatibilist, philosophical libertarian, which can be compared to layperson intuitions about free will. What can be recognized is that the layperson intuitions, which most often have both compatibilistic as well as libertarian thinking, do not mesh with the philosophical versions. For example, for the philosophical libertarian, they believe that causality is incompatible with “otherwise” notions of free will, where as the majority of laypersons think that if every event is causal or deterministic, they could still do otherwise. For the philosophical compatibilists, they define free will differently than the “otherwise” notion, and in doing so make their definition “compatible” with the causal/deterministic side, but they do this knowing that the otherwise notion is not compatible. This evades the fact that most layperson intuitions suggest that an “otherwise” is possible, and that most laypersons also have libertarian notions that the compatibilist would not agree with as well.
Both hard determinists and hard incompatibilists agree with the philosophical compatibilist that causality and otherwise notions do not work, and they also agree that any libertarian notion could not help (such would never be “up to the chooser” if quantum randomness / indeterminism led to a switch in decision from the causality of a deterministic universe). The hard determinist and hard incompatibilist, however, do not switch definitions away from the “otherwise” notion of free will, in order to address the poor free will abilities that the layperson commonly intuits.
And then there is fatalism, which many people often conflate with hard determinism or hard incompatibilism. This, however, is a big mistake, and it’s important for hard determinists and hard incompatibilists to display the important differences between the positions. To understand some of these differences, check out this infographic here:
To learn more about the type of free will definition of the hard determinist or hard incompatibilist, check out here: FREE WILL
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